- local variables: they are created at the function entry and destroyed at the exit
- global variables: they are created at the compilation time and destroyed when the database is closedA variable can contain:
- LONG: a 32-bit signed long integer (64-bit in 64-bit version of IDA) - INT64: a 64-bit signed long integer - STR: a character string - FLOAT: a floating point number (extra precision, up to 25 decimal digits) - OBJECT: an object with attributes and methods (a concept very close to C++ class) more - REF: a reference to another variable - FUNC: a function referenceA local variable is declared this way:
auto var1; auto var2 = <expr>;Global variables are declared like this:
extern var;Global variables can be redefined many times. IDA will silently ignore subsequent declarations. Please note that global variables cannot be initialized at the declaration time.
All C and C++ keywords are reserved and cannot be used as a variable name.
While it is possible to declare a variable anywhere in the function body, all variables are initialized at the function entry and all of them are destroyed only at the exit. So, a variable declared in a loop body will not be reinitialized at each loop iteration, unless explicitly specified with an assignment operator.
If a variable or function name cannot be recognized, IDA tries to resolve them using the names from the disassembled application. In it succeeds, the name is replaced by its value in the disassembly listing. For example:
.data:00413060 errtable dd 1 ; oscode .data:00413060 dd 16h ; errnocode
msg("address is: %x\n", _errtable);will print 413060. If the label denotes a structure, it is possible to refer to its fields:
msg("address is: %x\n", _errtable.errnocode);will print 413064. Please note that IDA does not try to read the data but just returns the address of the structure field. The field address can also be calculated using the get_field_ea function.
NOTE: The processor register names can be used in the IDC scripts when the debugger is active. Reading from such a variable return the corresponding register value. Writing to such a variable modifies the register value in the debugged process. Such variables are accessible only when the application is in the suspended mode.
NOTE: another way to emulate global scope variables is to use array functions and create global persistent arrays.